*1 Electron beam
An electron beam (EB) is a stream of high-velocity electrons emitted into a vacuum. Fluorescent lamps, television cathode ray tubes and X-ray tubes are devices that use electron beams.
*2 Spin polarization
The spin polarization is a spin-like property of electrons, which is also the source of magnets. There are two states of spin, upward (up/right-handed) and downward (down/left-handed), and a bias in either direction is called spin polarization.
*3 Photoelectric effect
A phenomenon in which electrons in a material fly out when light hits it. The electrons in a substance are bound by the gravitational pull of the atomic nucleus and cannot normally come out. In order to go out, energy is needed to break the bond. In the photoelectric effect, this binding is broken by the energy of light.
A general term for signals that change quickly and rapidly in a short period of time. An electric current or radio wave that flows for an extremely short time.
Chirality is a property of an object that prevents it from being superimposed on its mirror image. A shape with a difference between left and right is called chiral, and the human hand is a typical example of chiral. Some molecules have the same molecular formula, but their steric structures are mirror images of each other, and some have completely different chemical properties. For example, in thalidomide, the right-hand system (R-body) works as a sleeping pill, while the left-hand system (S-body) is a compound with strong teratogenic properties. It is important to develop a method to quickly and accurately separate the chirality of these substances. Incidentally, Professor Emeritus Yoshio Okamoto of Nagoya University (former visiting professor at Ecotopia Science Institute) received the "Japan International Prize" for his great contribution to the basic development of separation reactions, and Special Professor Ryoji Noyori was awarded a "Nobel Prize" for leading the world in reaction development.
A phenomenon in which a traveling wave travels around such a shadowed area as behind an obstacle. For example, a sound can be heard even when it is behind an object. This phenomenon is called diffraction. The larger the wavelength relative to the obstacle, the larger the diffraction angle.
It is a term used to describe the tendency of waves to interfere with each other, meaning that there is a constant relationship between the amplitude and the phase of two or more waves. It is similar to rhythm in music. Laser light is a highly coherent light and is sometimes called coherent light.
*8 Ultra-short pulse
An ultrashort pulse is a signal that has a rapid amplitude (wave) in an ultra-short time period of a few femtoseconds to a few picoseconds.
1 femtosecond = 1 fs = 1 x 10-15 sec = 1/1000 trillion 1 picosecond = 1 ps = 1 x 10-12 sec = 1/1 trillion
Incidentally, even light, which travels at a speed of about 300,000 km per second (a distance of seven and a half times the circumference of the earth), travels only about 0.3 µm in one femtosecond. The distance travelled by light in a femtosecond is about 0.3 μm.
It is the point at the boundary between two neighboring substances.; the boundary where two substances are joined.
*10 Topological substances
Topological substances are a group of substances discovered using the mathematical concept of topology, which classifies substances by the number of holes they have. Many different types of substances have been found. The contents of a substance (its bulk) can be studied to reveal the strong properties of its surfaces and interfaces. A typical example is topological insulators, which are insulators but have fast-moving Dirac electrons (electrons that move at high speed through the material as particles that appear to have no mass) on their surfaces, and are attracting attention as next-generation semiconductor materials.
A material that exhibits a quantum phenomenon in which electrical resistance suddenly drops to zero when cooled below a certain temperature, which varies depending on the material. Superconductors have practical features such as the ability to transmit electricity with zero loss and the ability to create a strong magnetic field.
*12 Majorana particle
The Majorana particle is defined as the antiparticle of itself, and it has recently been shown that the same state as the Majorana particle can appear in matter (in a special superconducting state). If the existence of this particle is confirmed, it would be possible to control the state of the Majorana particle by simply replacing it, thus creating an unprecedented quantum computer of the braided type. Therefore, there are high expectations for this "usable subatomic particle," and it is considered important from both the perspective of basic physics and applications, and the world is continuing to challenge its existence.